Key Question 4 address the key issue of evidence to support, or contradict, the idea that the Vikings were simply raiders rather than trader sand settlers. Getting to grips with the evidence is harder than you might think. Let’s look at just 5 types of clue.

1. Hoards

Possibly the most exciting are the hoards.The Cuerdale hoard is in fact the largest ever found in Europe. It was discovered only as recently as 1840 and contains over 8,000 silver items including coins which Guthrum started to mint, based on Alfred’s Saxon coinage.

2. Brooches

With the interest in metal detecting, so many more of these have been found. As the Anglo-Saxons made few of these they are a distinguishing feature of the Viking settlers, rather than raiders.

3. Street names

that still exist in York bear clear Viking origins

  • Skeldergate- Street of the shield maker
  • Hungate – Hounds street
  • Swinegate – Pig street
  • Coppergate- Cup maker street

4. The archaeological dig at Coppergate, Yorvik (York)

Between 1976 and 1981 there was an archaeological excavation right in the middle of York, next to the street called Coppergate. There had been a big sweet factory on the site, but this was

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